16 Centre for Economics and Business Research TAG figures do not include motorcycles, but we have made similar assumptions and also for HGVs regarding charging. HGV operators will want to charge at home base as often as possible on bulk electricity rates rather than pay third party profits25. Recharging and refuelling frequencies In order to estimate total time spent recharging or refuelling per vehicle per year, estimates of recharging or refuelling frequency are made. These are based on: • Maximum distance travelled on a typical tank or battery, using available sources on ICE and BEV ranges by vehicle type26. Multiplying these distances by current fuel consumption (litres/km or kWh/km) provides figures for tank or battery capacity. • Future changes in fuel consumption – this means that as vehicles become more efficient, a tank or battery of the same size will allow them to travel further before recharging or refuelling. • Annual kilometres travelled (discussed further under emissions) – this along with fuel consumption determines annual demand for litres of petrol/diesel or kWh of electricity, and therefore number of refills needed. Values of time Table 1: Values of time, 2022 (£/hour/vehicle) Assumed % of journey time, value of time per person Occupancy Value of time Business Commuting Other Car 11% 25% 65% 1.61 £16.83 £25.33 £14.25 £6.50 Motorbike 4% 51% 45% 1.00 £11.26 £25.33 £14.25 £6.50 LGV 90% 10% 0% 1.25 £21.95 £17.93 £14.25 £6.50 HGV 100% 0% 0% 1.00 £20.67 £20.67 £14.25 £6.50 We monetise the time spent recharging or refuelling by vehicle type, drawing on TAG values of time and National Travel Survey (NTS) data on journey purposes. TAG values of time are forecast (growing in line with real GDP/capita) to 2089. These are available for working time by type of vehicle driver/passenger, commuting time, and other (i.e., leisure/personal business). For car and LGV, these are adjusted by assumed occupancies – 1.61 for car (based on TAG) and 1.25 for LGV. 25 4.5 hours driving and 45 minutes charging. A viable solution for electric trucks?, trans.info, January 2021, Link. 26 Ranges for: ICE car, BEV car, ICE motorbike, BEV motorbike, ICE LGV, BEV LGV, ICE HGV, BEV LGV.