Fair Fuel APPG for UK Motorists and UK Hauliers August 2021 Page | 44 Narrowing of roads and the Cycle Superhighway has also slowed traffic flow (stationary traffic produces four times more emissions than moving traffic) and increased pedestrian- level pollution. London’s road system is the most congested it has ever been. The APPG worries that targeting passenger car drivers, (a relatively narrow band of polluters at 11% of NOx) won’t make a significant difference to the air Londoner’s breathe. If all the cars vanished tomorrow, 89% of the NOx would remain. According to the London Assembly Environment Committee, gas central heating produces 16% of NOx (some reports set this at 38%), domestic wood burning 12% of PM10s, diesel vans 5% of NOx, rail 8% of NOx, diesel plant and machinery 14% of NOx and ground-based aviation 8% of NOx. Also add shipping, HGVs, industrial combustion, air conditioning and planes to a list of other polluters that get scant mention in the diesel debate. The battery supply crunch There is another problem with the anti-internal combustion engine lobby. They completely refuse to address energy and overall pollution issues. It turns out that an electric vehicle is 14 times worse environmentally compared to a hybrid. This is in part, due to the huge environmental footprint of creating an electric vehicle and its batteries. Electric vehicles still produce air pollution and greenhouse gases from their brakes, tires, the electricity that powers them and the factories that build them. Even if we can address (or ignore) these problems, there is a much larger stumbling block facing personal electric vehicles as a solution for climate change. In 2019, the world produced about 160 gigawatt hours (GWh) of lithium-ion batteries. That is enough for a little more than three million standard-range Tesla Model 3s — and only if we use those batteries for cars, and don’t build any smart-phones, laptops or grid storage facilities. As of Dec 2019, the number of lithium-ion battery mega factories in the pipeline has reached 115 plants. The world’s leading EV and battery manufacturer added a huge 564GWh of pipeline capacity in 2019 to a global total of 2068.3GWh or the equivalent of Only 40 million EVs by 2028. In Jan 2019, Benchmark Minerals’ saw a Lithium-ion Battery Mega factory pipeline of 68 plants with a total capacity of 1.45TWh by 2028. Europe’s planned 2018 lithium-ion cell battery capacity is now 348GWh. China plans to add 564GWh by 2028 and has 88 of 115 lithium-ion battery mega factories in the pipeline to 2029. The front-end political pressure to drive electric instead of fossil fuelled vehicles means demand will massively exceed global battery production capacity. The London Port Authority which oversees the 50 million tonnes of cargo passing through the tidal Thames every year has ‘no calculations’ for their emissions and pollutants. That is diesel-powered ships outfitted with diesel generators, that run 24/7 when they’re in port. The LPA is carrying out an emissions audit. This is a potentially very large source of diesel emissions that we should have measured by now & taxed? When these figures are factored in, they will further reduce the proportion of emissions emanating from road users. Before an electric car turns a wheel, the manufacture of the batteries alone creates more CO 2 than a small petrol engine car driving 100,000 miles.