Fair Fuel APPG for UK Motorists and UK Hauliers August 2021 Page | 23 Wind farms would need to ‘cover whole of Scotland’ to power Britain’s electric vehicles. Professor Ponton 10 said: “I’ve seen three different estimates for the amount of new generating capacity that we would need if we’re going to have all the cars in Britain running on electricity. “If you want to do this with wind turbines, you are talking about 16,000 more wind turbines, four times as many as we have at the moment, and I’ve estimated that would occupy some 90,000 square kilometres, which is approximately the size of Scotland.” Impact Analysis of Level 2 EV Chargers on Residential Power Distribution Grids Large scale Electric Vehicles (EV) penetration is coming with a stupendous energy demand that raises much concern in the power sector. The impact of this demand is mostly notable at the distribution side as an outcome of EV users home charging preferences. Currently, most EVs charge their batteries through a mains level 1 charger at home. However, the shorter charging times and the declining prices of faster chargers favour a switch from level 1 into level 2 chargers at residential premises. A 22kW charger is the fastest charger you can get for the home, but to achieve this the charge point will need to be three-phase compatible and use what's called a three-phase electricity supply. In addition, the car itself will need to be able to accept 22kW. As a ramification, this will cause a lamentable peak in the residential load profile, and consequently power utilities will face the impact of elevated number of level 2 chargers with such uncontrolled EV charging. A 50% EV penetration for example along with 50% level 2 chargers’ deployment may create an undesirable situation on the distribution network. The collected results show that available electricity power pricing techniques cannot maintain the voltage level over minimum desired threshold especially during peak times. In other words, power outages are inevitable. The National Grid – An expert perspective from the GWPF John Constable is the energy editor of the Global Warming Policy Foundation. “Steadily rising costs since 2002, and two major events in the last few years, one instantaneous and one still ongoing, have exposed the underlying and increasing weakness of the United Kingdom’s renewables-dominated electricity supply industry, requiring insupportably large injections of additional resources to patch the system and secure supply. Since 2002, when renewables were introduced on a large scale, the cost of balancing the grid has risen from £367 million to £1.5 billion per year. This is largely due to measures to manage the intermittency of renewables, particularly wind and solar. Grid expansions, such as the £1 billion Western Link, to connect up far-flung windfarms, are also adding to consumer bills. In spite of this expenditure, in August 2019 a lightning strike on the high voltage grid caused a loss of supply in London and other places affecting 1 million customers for over an hour, with knock-on effects that continued for weeks. Lightning strikes are common events and in a robust system would pass almost unnoticed. “The most detailed calculation says we’d be looking at five Hinkley nuclear stations to run this. It would be the best way, the most efficient way to get electricity because nuclear power stations can run 90 per cent of the time.” Professor Ponton.