5 © Centre for Economics and Business Research the vehicle must meet the required Euro emissions standard for the vehicle and emission type. The ULEZ standards are provided in Table 1. Table 1 Dates from which newly registered vehicles must be compliant with ULEZ or pay a daily charge Vehicle type Minimum emission standards Date from which vehicles registered as new must meet the emissions standard Motorbike, moped etc (Category L) Euro 3 1 July 2007 Car and small van (Categories M1 and N1 (1) Euro 4 (petrol) Euro 6 (diesel) 1 January 2006 1 September 2015 Large van and minibus up to 3.5 tonnes (Categories N1 (2 and 3) and M2 Euro 4 (petrol) Euro 6 (diesel) 1 January 2007 1 September 2016 The Proposed Scheme The Mayor has announced that a new London wide scheme (‘the Proposed Scheme’) for ULEZ will be introduced at end August 2023. The Proposed Scheme comprises: ▪ Expansion of the ULEZ to the wider outer London area (to the boundary of the LEZ, 96 per cent of Greater London) ▪ Charge level of £12.50 per day for vehicles not compliant with ULEZ standards (a continuation of the charge level currently applied to the existing inner London ULEZ) ▪ The same operating times as the existing ULEZ – 24 hours a day (midnight to midnight), seven days a week, every day except Christmas Day 3 ▪ Identical emissions standards as the existing ULEZ ▪ Removal of the annual £10 per vehicle Auto Pay registration fee ▪ Increase the Penalty Charge from £160 to £180 for non-payment of the ULEZ charge The proposals to remove the annual £10 per vehicle Auto Pay registration fee and to increase the Penalty Charge levels also apply to the Congestion Charge scheme, with the proposal to remove the annual £10 Auto Pay per vehicle registration fee also applying to the LEZ. There are several discounts, exemptions and reimbursements for the existing inner London ULEZ scheme that will remain in place and would mitigate some of the impacts associated with the implementation of the Proposed Scheme on certain people and businesses travelling within the ULEZ expansion area. This study examines the economic and some social impacts of the Proposed Scheme.