9 ÓCentre for Economics and Business Research Sweden**** € 0.67 $3.00 6 € 0.47 $2.12 10 € 0.53 € 0.33 United Kingdom € 0.67 $3.00 7 € 0.67 $3.00 1 € 0.62 € 0.62 Average € 0.55 $2.47 € 0.44 $1.98 Minimum Rate € 0.36 $1.61 € 0.33 $1.48 Notes: The excise duties apply to petroleum and diesel with a sulphur content of < 10 mg/kg, RON 95 (gas), bioethanol content, and, if applicable, includecarbon taxes and surcharges. The excise duties were converted into USD using the average 2021 USD-EUR exchange rate (0.846); see IRS, “Yearly Average Currency Exchange Rates,” https://www.irs.gov/individuals/international-taxpayers/yearly-average-currency-exchange-rates. * These countries are not part of the EU ** Hungary’s excise duty decreases to EUR 0.35 per litre for gas and EUR 0.34 per litre for diesel if the world market price of crude oil is at or below $50 USD/barrel. *** Malta’s temporary rate decrease is in effect for all of 2022. **** The listed excise duties were taken from the rates applied to environmental class 1 gas and diesel. Source: European Commission, “Taxes in Europe Database,”https://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/tedb/splSearchForm.html; and HMRevenue and Customs, “UK Trade Tariff: excise duties, reliefs, drawbacks, and allowances,”https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/uk-trade-tariff-excise-duties-reliefs-drawbacks-andallowances/uk-trade-tariff-excise-duties-reliefs-drawbacks-and-allowances. Latest data for Italian and French tax cuts included Fair Fuel UK campaigns for a fair deal for motorists and against the stigmatisation of motorists. Fair Fuel are campaigning to prevent HM Treasury from balancing its books by imposing further taxes on motorists. In this report Cebr researches the economic and distributional implications of a 23% rise in fuel duty which would raise the duty on fuel (including VAT) by 14.6p. The research covers two points: the distributional impact and the economic impact. Relevant to both parts of the research is the extent to which a rise in fuel duty is likely to be passed through to consumers. So this issue is examined first. 2.2. Distributional impact of a rise in fuel duty Task one – what is the impact of a rise in fuel duty on companies and households? The research investigates the distributional consequences of a 23% rise in fuel duty on households by income decile and by regions. The research also looks at the consequences for van drivers and for HGV drivers The research also considers the extent to which different groups can avoid the consequences of the rise in duty through 1) buying vehicles with reduced fuel consumption such as electric or hybrid vehicles; and 2) adjusting their driving patterns 2.3. Economic consequences of a rise in fuel duty Task two investigates the economic consequences of a rise in duty