Cradle to Grave Comparison Between Battery Powered Electric Vehicles and Internal Combustion-Engine Vehicles 22 Photo credits: Cover images: Petrol pump by bere_moonlight0 via Pixabay Electric vehicle charging by LeeRosario via Pixabay Page 2: EV by Mikes-Photography via Pixabay 42 Global Warming Policy Foundation - Britains electricity grid on the brink https://www. shortages.pdf 43 Global Warming Policy Foundation - Brink of Darkness content/uploads/2020/06/Constable-Brink- of-Darkness.pdf 44 consumer-affairs/electric-cars-cheaper-to- scrap-than-repair-after-minor-pran/ 45 gaining-traction-losing-tread 46 particulate-matter-in-outdoor-air-does-not- cause-death/ 47 visualizing-ev-mineral-shortage 48 mineral-supply-will-change-ev-forecasts/ The ABD gratefully acknowledges the permission of the copyright owner, Visual Capitalist, to reproduce the “Visualized: The EV Mineral Shortage” content unabridged and in full within this document 49 The First Law of Thermodynamics (https:// and_Theoretical_Chemistry_Textbook_ Maps/Supplemental_Modules_(Physical_ and_Theoretical_Chemistry)/ Thermodynamics/The_Four_Laws_of_ Thermodynamics/First_Law_of_ Thermodynamics) states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but can be transformed from one form to another with the interaction of heat, work and internal energy. Paraphrased, the Second Law of Thermodynamics ( law-thermodynamics.html) states that heat always moves from hotter objects to colder objects; and as energy is transferred or transformed, more and more of it is lost to alternative processes competing with the primary transformation process.” 50 volkswagen/golf-mk7/20-tdi-life-5dr/spec 51 uploads/2018/02/ipcc_wg3_ar5_annex-iii. pdf#page=7 52 range-evs-2023 53 emissions-110-130-g-km-counted-73- european-car-regs-2017/