Cradle to Grave Comparison Between Battery Powered Electric Vehicles and Internal Combustion-Engine Vehicles 2 Contents 3 Summary 3 Headlines 6 Recommendations 7 The Conclusions From Our Research 8 CO₂ And Vehicle Longevity 9 The Problem 10 The CO₂ Cost For Electric and Internal Combustion Powered Vehicles 11 The Problem With Battery-Powered Heavy Duty Vehicles 12 Alternatives to Battery-Powered Electric Vehicles 14 The Problems of UK Grid Capacity 15 The “Ultralow” EV Emissions Fallacy 15 Minerals 18 The EV Supply Chain 18 Suggested Solutions 18 Conclusions 19 Appendix 20 References