Comparison Between Battery Powered Electric Vehicles and Internal Combustion-Engine Vehicles Cradle to Grave 19 Appendix 1 The values shown in Table 1 compare a VW Golf EV or ID3 (or similar) with a VW Golf 2.0 TDi⁵⁰ 'over a typical 150,000 km lifespan', and demonstrate overall that an internal combustion- powered vehicle has an environmental advantage over battery-powered vehicles of the same category – note though that we are not comparing, for example, a VW Golf with an SUV. If the life of an internal combustion-powered vehicle is extended beyond 13.9 years (the UK average scrappage point), then its lifetime emissions could reduce to less than 25 grams per kilometre. BEV batteries can be replaced; but at a significant monetary cost, and incurring an additional CO ² debt. Table 1 The BEV: MGI-HR scenario assumes low-to-average grid intensity with a high renewables contribution. This happens relatively infrequently in the UK. The PGI-0R scenario, with peak demand and low-to zero renewables contribution, is a significantly more frequent UK/ Northern European "no wind/no sun" occurrence. Quoted grid intensity impact on manufacturing CO ² emissions reflects German grid variability. High grid intensity figures will be much worse for e.g., Eastern Europe, China and other countries with predominantly (often brown) coal-based electricity generation capacity. Under PGI-0R, peak grid intensity and low renewables contribution conditions, a BEV is primarily fossil fuel-powered; and consequently its g/km figure will be, at best, no better than those of most fossil fuel-powered vehicles (Table 2). The BEV PGI-0R figures quoted are based on EU low basis lifecycle CCGT emissions of 410g CO ² /kWh51 & a 410km (250 mile) BEV range: a "best case" scenario. The average US BEV range figure is actually only 349 km⁵2. When combined with EU high basis lifecycle CCGT emissions (490g CO ² /kWh), this implies a ''worst case' of up to 140 g/km BEV PGI-0R in-use emissions. This would increase the quoted Table 1 and Table 2 BEV PGI-0R total CO ² emissions figure to 270 g/km, comparable with the Maserati range average total CO² emissions (in-use figure found from this reference⁵3). Table 2